Leadership Integrity

The following is a series of notes taken from a class on organizational behavior I took from Rev. Colin Buckland, back in the summer of 2010. The class took place at Kingsfield, in Baldock, Hetfordshire, England.

Worldwide, the issue about leadership is Integrity — “We want our leaders to have integrity.”

Psycho-spiritual dynamics:

  1. Acceptance: people are desperate to be accepted by others
  2. Achievement: if people can’t achieve they will get ill; God built us to achieve
  3. Significance: feeling of being here not by accident; three basic human requirements

Normal (secular) teaching about significance:  Aim for Blue Ocean, when you will pitch your business; in which there are not so many products, so you can achieve a niche; but the Blue Ocean is everyday disappearing faster and faster

Our treatment of others gives or takes away significance.  We have these things already in Christ; our goal should be to teach others they already have these because of Jesus.  These three aspects are twisted in humanity; in Christ they are fulfilled and healthy. Even outside of Christ, the Christian principles can still be applied through leadership.

The key to success and behavior is how you behave within an organization.

  • ‘Coal face’ — where the rubber hit’s the road; the reality
  • Christian organizations do not do well; we are not leading, we are trailing

We must always be aware that the organization is composed of the human element.

  1. Human behavior within the setting
  2. The organization itself
  3. The relationship between the human and the organization

‘The Big Eye’ — the big overview; being able to discern the subtle paradigms that operate within an organization: Organizational behavior is their DNA.  Change is successful through incremental change, not massive and major change.

  1. ‘Soldiering’ – when the workers agree to work together under their capability
  2. ‘Piece-rate’ – earnings are now related to the pieces you make
  3. ‘Esprit de corps’ – spirit of the upper management
  4. ‘Span of control’ – the upper management having command and controlling without question the employees
  5. ‘Vac job’ – holiday work
  6.  Rules — stifles creativity but creates clear expectations
  7. Divisions — narrows specialization and forces limitations; soul destroying
  8. Hierarchy — creates judgment (good and bad, hard worker and lazy) among workers
  9. Technical — the resolution of what merit becomes has no standard; technical competence is standard

Therefore, advancement is narrowed to certain kinds of people; copies.

  1. Rights — Lack of identity for workers
  2. Documentation — Policy ends up mastering the organization

The idea of ‘employee satisfaction’ was a paradigm shift in business — which leads to the question, what mistakes are we making today that will require another paradigm shift?

X=Modernists (Traditional Leadership), Y=Post-Modernists (Servant Leadership)

‘You can lead a horse to water — you can’t force it to drink.’  We should resist the spirit of poverty which says ‘I am nothing and I am no one.’

  • Maslow: Not a Christian source, but still has a lot of wisdom.
  •  FISH (a study about fun in the workplace)

We are currently in a Post-Literate culture. People are only interested in seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling, touching it.  Story is the currency of this age.

  • The Dream Society (book about the future in 20 years), Rolf Jenson

Thoughts today:

1. Overview on how various secular and perhaps ungodly systems can be used in order to propose systemic change to organizational behavior, perhaps in a Christ-like way.

2. A background of organizational history which is focused on seeing the wisdom in traditional forms of systematic theory and historical and cultural blindness, and how we should use a positivistic point of view in viewing the future and believing we can personally change it.

3. Trying to capture and critique contemporary society and culture in the lens of how we move forward through organizational evolution and past paradigms.

4. Trying to understand how to implement this kind of traditional organizational structure in a classroom setting, to encourage students to learn on their own and take responsibility for their lives rather than being spoon-fed information and regurgitating stuff.

Emergent Leadership

The following is a series of notes taken from a class on servant leadership I took from Rev. Colin Buckland, back in the summer of 2010. The class took place at Kingsfield, in Baldock, Hetfordshire, England.

Leadership is: serving; influential; role-modeling; influencing people; creating a context for human flourishing; communication and modeling; discipline; situational but consistent; transformational; an embodiment of what others desire to follow; visionary; trustworthy; inspiring; and equipped and empowered.

  1. Maximizing potential in people
  2. Serve people so that they can grow
  3. Raising the morality of the organization 

Leadership is NOT about telling people what to do.

The leader must always have followers. Followers are volunteers.  There is a human agreement between the leader and the followers — in which the leader thanks the followers; the realization that nothing could happen without the team.

Leadership is never imposed; it is only gained.  If leadership is something that influences, then icons become global leaders.  Often we become reactive: what we see we don’t like, we do not want to become.

Most times our views of leadership are shaped by Thought-Leaders.  Leadership is not highly looked upon, across the whole world.

Leadership is idealized.  The ideal motif of the leader is replicated throughout humanity; projected upon icons (who may not be leaders at all).  Within Christian leadership, God-like Energy is projected upon the clergy by those below them. Humans want to be told how to live, not how to grow.

All people can affect a small portion of society, that eventually will go on to change other elements. There are things we can do.

Leadership is Power. How do we tap into the power dynamic in a healthy way? The moment a person has power, there is a psychological response, both in the holder and the recipient of power.

Some people desperately want to be leaders, for all of the wrong reasons.  Christ, therefore, becomes our central figure as leaders.  The trend of rising cynicism drives toxicity into people’s lives — that the world is slowly dying, and so we begin to focus on the death of our souls.

  1. A shift in power = where the workers now demand control of their own lives, rather than being in control by their work.
  2. Changing contract = jobs are now longer for one’s entire life — but short-term.

This shift of power is leaning towards China and the East. Now western blue-collar needs to re-train, and workers in the west need to specialize.

Eventually, the Farmers in China will disappear and become the workers of New Industry — once they realize how they have relocated all of their Farmers to the cities.

The West will eventually become major Specialists, and will be forced to become the idea people of the rest of the world.

Because of this we need to train companies how to be innovative. If they cannot innovate in the long-run, they will die.

Perhaps in the future this will cause the United States and the west to become the manufacturers.  There is a desperate need for excellent leadership.

What is we are sitting on a powerhouse, and we just don’t know how to let it loose? What could happen?  The days of the Heroic Leader needs to come to an end. The heroic nature of it is in releasing the organization. The Cult of the CEO is dead.

Leadership becomes facilitative, the forward journey for people, fabric, and company.

Ethics and Virtue

The following is a series of notes taken from a class on Ethics I took from Dr. Ray Wheeler, back in January of 2009. The class took place at Daystar University, in Nairobi, Kenya.

Ethics is central to leadership because of the nature of the process of influence.

Influence: Engages followers

Accomplishes mutual goals

Ethics is central to leadership because of the impact leaders have on establishing the organization’s values.


Different forms of ethics:






II. Intention for Ethical Dilemmas

Our intentions assume a right or wrong, against a universal law.

Our intention is based on self-examination.


Ethics is the process of making decisions based on moral assumptions.


How do I handle conflicting values? “On the one side, I value truthfulness; on the other side I value human life.”


III. What is Ethics?

Ethos; customs, conduct or character (what society finds desirable)



Consideration of others



Values: ideas, principles or beliefs that are held as special

Morals: authoritative statements or ideals of what is right or wrong

Virtue: operative habit that is essentially good

Kindness, discipline, honesty, hospitality, etc., are examples of virtue.

Motive: reasons from which an individual determines behavior.

Anger, love, temper, desire for glory, etc., are examples of motive.


IV. A short history of ethics

[Plato] Eudaemonistic ethics: human wellbeing is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct to which the virtues are requisite skills and character traits.


[Aristotle] Ethics as grounded on virtues, but he rejected Plato’s insistence that training in sciences and metaphysics was a prerequisite to understanding the good.



Ethical behavior exhibits virtues in the mean between:




Virtue is contrasted by vice in pursuit of the mean,

The behaviors may be:




ethical grid

We must examine what we drift into easily… We must drag ourselves off in the contrary direction…”


The definition of the mean is determined by society.


The mother tree grows new trees through its roots, rather than scattered seeds

Its roots form new trees, which when are cut at the right time, form new groves

All trees are connected to one another


V. The Moral Agent

Aristotle: the moral agent can fulfill his or her moral obligation.

Example: Someone points a gun at you and says to rob the bank.

Duty: I do not steal.

Prima Facie: I will preserve my life.

I cannot obey both. If fail my duty due to duress, I will not be held morally responsible.


VI. Approaches to ethics

Teleological: decision based on the consequence

Essentially, teleological ethics is based on what happens.

The good (the end) drives the decision.

The result determines the rule.

The result is the basis of the action.

The result is sometimes used to break the rules.

The rule is good because of the result.


Deontological: decision based on duty

Essentially, deontological ethics are based on your beliefs.

The duty drives the decision.

The rule determines the result.

The rule is the basis of the act.

The rule is good regardless of the result.

The result is calculated within the rules.


PRINCIPLE: The more facts you discover as a leader the better the decision.


VII. Northouse’s Foci of Ethical Reasoning

Conduct-based ethics

Consequences (teleological theories)

Ethical egoism: decision made to my greatest benefit

Utilitarianism: what is the greatest possible good for the greatest number of people; using pragmatism as a style of invention

Act utilitarianism: is what is best in a specific case

Rule utilitarianism: is what is generally best in most contexts

Altruism: decisions should be made in light of the best interests of others

Leaders intent on benefiting others will pursue organizational goals.

Conversely self-focused leaders focus on personal achievement and control.

Duty (deontological theories)


Character-based ethics

Virtue-based theories


Can Kant’s Categorical Imperative remain?


Velasquez (1992)









Northouse (2004)

Builds community

Respects others

Serves others

Shows justice

Manifests honesty

Goal: to exercise awareness of the impact of leadership decisions


VIII. Models of Virtue





Self control






Goal: Live well in community. 

What virtues anchor our ethics?


IX. Ethics in organizational leadership

Point: ethics has to do with a) what leaders do and b) who leaders are.

Importance: in any decision-making situation implicit or explicit ethical issues exist.


X. Reflection

A leader is a person who has an unusual degree of power to create the conditions under which other people must live and move and have their being, conditions that can be either as illuminating as heaven or as shadowy as hell. A leader must take special responsibility for what’s going on inside his or her own self, inside his or her conscience, lest the act of leadership create more harm than good.” (Parker Palmer, “Leading from Within”)


What you are has a serious impact on what you do. A leader cannot separate himself from his responsibility. A leader has to accept the responsibilities of leadership. You have this impact whether or not you accept this responsibility. There is a direct teleological response that comes with every decision a leader makes.

Group Dynamics

The following is a series of notes taken from a class on Conflict Dynamics I took from Dr. Macmillan Kiiru, back in January of 2009. The class took place at Daystar University, in Nairobi, Kenya.

Group dynamics:
Focuses on advancing knowledge about the nature of Group Life

The Scientific study of the:

a) Nature of Groups, b) Behavior in Groups, and c) Group Development

The Knowledge of Group Dynamics helps the way we think and/or function in groups


“My life is our life.”


III. Assertive People:

  • Meet conflict directly
  • Does not pretend everything is ok
  • Looks for win/win situations
  • Brings the facts forward
  • Does not let offenses build
  • Willing to compromise to arrive at a destination
  • Open-minded to other solutions
  • Assist others in problem-solving
  • Address problems immediately
  • Let others how they truly feel
  • Upbeat, positive tone
  • Empathic reasoning
  • Seeking out constructive feedback
  • Refraining from ‘beating around the bush’
  • Making certain they are properly understood
  • Establishing healthy boundaries
  • Lack of attacking individual character
  • Always ask tough questions
  • Sensitivity towards feelings of others
  • Hold other people accountable

Honest, initiative, forgiving, trusting, humble, non-defensive, serving, reliable


Vs. being Aggressive:

  • Proud and self-centered
  • Want what it wants, without others concern
  • Always right
  • Must win at all costs
  • Attack others when disagree
  • Offensively opinionated
  • Exaggerated
  • Close-minded
  • Slams doors
  • Always seem angry
  • Constantly interrupts
  • Dominates conversations
  • Intentionally intimidates


IV. The Process

Many achievers are of necessity, aggressive. Aggressive people, however, tend to be very lonely. The environment around us demands certain behaviors that often are not necessarily positive. The backgrounds, the way we are raised at home, sometimes produce an aggressive or passive person. But we should look back, to see where we are. This is a discipline we work through.

How sustainable is aggressive behavior? It doesn’t last long. Aggression leads to “a cliff.” It can be self-destructive. That is why it is not self-sustainable. But assertive behavior is sustainable, because of the responsiveness of those around.


V. Understanding Groups:

1) A group may be defined as a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal

2) People join groups in order to achieve goals they are unable to achieve by themselves

3) A collection of individuals who are interdependent in some way

4) A number of individuals who are interacting with one another


Groups have goals. They are interdependent, as they interact with each other. Often, though, the goal of the group is not the goal of the individual. How do you harmonize the group and individual goal?